Healers & Therapists News

Healers & Therapists News

Healers & Therapists News from June Meagher of AAMARHealing brings you the latest news from sources such as the BBC Health pages as well as the Green Med Info pages and Science Daily, we will be adding more news feeds shortly. Join the conversations on our LinkedIn group which has over 18,000 healers and therapists from around the globe and discover even more news and tips. If you have any news you would like to add to our website, please contact me and I can add it to our blog.


    • BBC News - Health
    • GreenMedInfo
    • Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily

    People may need to be on the lookout for different Covid symptoms, according to researchers. Read more

    Most current Covid rules will remain for four more weeks after 21 June, government sources say. Read more

    Welsh health minister says vaccine rollout is six weeks ahead of schedule as Wales leads world. Read more

    PM Boris Johnson rejects criticism the donation is not enough, saying "we are going flat out". Read more

    With more women being told they have the virus, Jess Phillips says there needs to be more discussion. Read more

    The coronavirus has changed and changed again, getting more transmissible each time. Read more

    Writer Wayne Brown welcomes the change after he was turned away from donating last year. Read more

    Covid passports could be used at events such as sports matches and concerts, the BBC understands. Read more

    This group is experiencing huge inequalities and often dying from avoidable causes, a report says. Read more

    Five whistleblowers working in or with the Welsh NHS share their experiences of bullying and harassment. Read more

    The key numbers that offer clues as to whether "freedom day" will proceed as planned on 21 June. Read more

    Seonag was unaware she had a "mark" on the back of her thigh when she went for a Mother's Day massage. Read more

    A third Covid wave hit much of Europe hard but now gradually lockdowns are being eased. Read more

    Rising coronavirus cases have called the planned 21 June relaxing of rules in England into question. Read more

    There have been no coronavirus deaths announced today - is this a moment for celebration? Read more

    After Dominic Cummings' testimony on Wednesday, some bereaved by the pandemic are asking: what if? Read more

    The total is the largest but for deaths per 100,000 people the UK is no longer top. Read more

    The vaccine rollout is now reaching younger adults. What do they need to know about getting jabbed? Read more

    Explore the data on coronavirus in the UK and find out how many cases there are in your area. Read more

    UK coronavirus cases are rising due to a variant first identified in India that spreads more easily. Read more

    The government is yet to decide whether to lift the remaining restrictions on 21 June. Read more

    Wearing a face covering is currently a legal requirement in many places, but could the rules change as lockdown eases further? Read more

    The vaccine is being offered to over-18s in Wales and Northern Ireland, over-25s in England and over-30s in Scotland. Read more

    Busting myths and explaining the facts around vaccines. Read more

    Shielding in England is ending on 31 March. Read more

    Why experts are concerned about the emergence of this particular new version of coronavirus. Read more

    What is it like to have the coronavirus, how will it affect you and how is it treated? Read more

    Some people across the UK have been able to form "support bubbles" or "extended households". Read more

    Everyone in England and Scotland is being encouraged to take rapid coronavirus tests regularly. Read more

    A new cough, fever and change in smell or taste are the key symptoms that mean you may have coronavirus. Read more

    Use our tool to check the meaning of key words and phrases associated with the Covid-19 outbreak. Read more

    While most people will have mild symptoms and recover quickly, some are more prone to getting sick. Read more

    With face masks in high demand, we look at whether they really can protect people from the virus. Read more

    John Butler's videos have been watched by millions after he became popular with the ASMR community. Read more

    Sage scientist warns opening up too soon would "fan the flames" of a third wave of coronavirus. Read more

    G7 leaders pledge one billion doses of Covid-19 vaccines for poorer countries, says PM Boris Johnson. Read more

    Ten-year-old Deaglan McCallion wants people to be more understanding of his condition. Read more

    Bea's mum calls it a "massive achievement," after two heart operations due to a rare disorder. Read more

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    PMID:  Phytomedicine. 2021 May 4 ;87:153583. Epub 2021 May 4. PMID: 34033999 Abstract Title:  Sulforaphane inhibits the expression of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 induced in bronchial epithelial IB3-1 cells by exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. Abstract:  BACKGROUND: A key clinical feature of COVID-19 is a deep inflammatory state known as"cytokine storm"and characterized by high expression of several cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, including IL-6 and IL-8. A direct consequence of this inflammatory state in the lungs is the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), frequently observed in severe COVID-19 patients. The"cytokine storm"is associated with severe forms of COVID-19 and poor prognosis for COVID-19 patients. Sulforaphane (SFN), one of the main components of Brassica oleraceae L. (Brassicaceae or Cruciferae), is known to possess anti-inflammatory effects in tissues from several organs, among which joints, kidneys and lungs.PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to determine whether SFN is able to inhibit IL-6 and IL-8, two key molecules involved in the COVID-19"cytokine storm".METHODS: The effects of SFN were studied in vitro on bronchial epithelial IB3-1 cells exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (S-protein). The anti-inflammatory activity of SFN on IL-6 and IL-8 expression has been evaluated by RT-qPCR and Bio-Plex analysis.RESULTS: In our… Read more

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    PMID:  J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2021 06 8 ;35(3). Epub 2021 Jun 8. PMID: 34100279 Abstract Title:  Be aware of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: There is more than meets the eye. Abstract:  The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the rapid production of vaccines aimed at the production of neutralizing antibodies against the COVID-19 spike protein required for the corona virus binding to target cells. The best well-known vaccines have utilized either mRNA or an adenovirus vector to direct human cells to produce the spike protein against which the body produces mostly neutralizing antibodies. However, recent reports have raised some skepticism as to the biologic actions of the spike protein and the types of antibodies produced. One paper reported that certain antibodies in the blood of infected patients appear to change the shape of the spike protein so as to make it more likely to bind to cells, while other papers showed that the spike protein by itself (without being part of the corona virus) can damage endothelial cells and disrupt the blood-brain barrier. These findings may be even more relevant to the pathogenesis of long-COVID syndrome that may affect as many as 50% of those infected with SARS-CoV-2. In COVID-19, a response… Read more

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    PMID:  Phytother Res. 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5. PMID: 34089280 Abstract Title:  The effect of cocoa/dark chocolate consumption on lipid profile, glycemia, and blood pressure in diabetic patients: A meta-analysis of observational studies. Abstract:  Due to the increasing rate of cardiovascular disease and related risk factors in the worldin recent decades, the present meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effects ofcocoa/chocolate consumption on lipid profile, glycemia, and blood pressure control in diabetic patients. A systematic search of the databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochran Library was performed up to July 2020. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using cocoa/dark chocolate in diabetic patients were included in the study. The search results were limited to English-language publications. Eight RCTs, including 433 participants, were selected for this meta-analysis. Pooled analysis indicated a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-c levels (WMD: -15.49 mg/dl; 95% CI: -24.56, -6.42, p = .001) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) concentrations (WMD: -6.88 mg/dl; 95% CI: -13.28, -0.48, p = .03) following cocoa/dark chocolate consumption. The analysis of papers included in current study indicates that the consumption of cocoa/dark chocolate reduced the serum fasting blood glucose (FBS) and LDL cholesterol concentrations. However, further high quality trials are essential for confirming… Read more

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    PMID:  Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2021 ;14:2525-2537. Epub 2021 Jun 4. PMID: 34113144 Abstract Title:  Berberine Ameliorates Hepatic Insulin Resistance by Regulating microRNA-146b/SIRT1 Pathway. Abstract:  Objective: Hepatic insulin resistance is a major initiating factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In previous study, Gegen Qinlian Decoction containing berberine could enhance hepatic insulin sensitivity by SIRT1-dependent deacetylation of FOXO1. However, it is not clear whether berberine also can improve hepatic insulin sensitivity by SIRT1/FOXO1 pathway. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of berberine for improving hepatic insulin resistance and the possible molecular mechanisms involved.Methods: In vitro, HepG2 cells were induced with palmitic acid, and glycogen synthesis was examined. In vivo, a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mouse model was established, and metabolic parameters were assessed. The expressions of miR-146b and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in liver were also examined. The relationship between miR-146b and SIRT1 was examined by the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay.Results: Serum biochemical parameters, such as glucose and HOMA-IR index, were increased in HFD mice; miR-146b and SIRT1 were abnormally expressed in HFD mice and palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Interestingly, berberine reduced body weight and caused a significant improvement in glucose tolerance and HOMA-IR index without altering food intake in mice. Overexpression… Read more

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    PMID:  Nutr Cancer. 2017 Apr ;69(3):505-511. Epub 2017 Feb 17. PMID: 28287317 Abstract Title:  Chemosensitizing Effect of Saikosaponin B on B16F10 Melanoma Cells. Abstract:  Cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy is one of the obstacles for better cancer treatment, and inflammatory signaling pathways, such as NF-κB signaling pathway, have been recognized to be involved in such chemoresistance. In this study, we aim to identify a new approach for overcoming cancer chemoresistance by using natural compounds. As a result of screening by using Murine B16F10 melanoma cell line constitutively expressing NF-κB luciferase reporter gene, we identified Saikosaponin B2 as an effective inhibitor for etoposide-induced NF-κB activation in B16F10NFkB cells. Saikosaponin B2 sensitized etoposide-induced cell death in B16F10 melanoma cells through the induction of apoptosis. Along with apoptosis induction, we observed an induction of γ-H2AX expression, which is a molecular signature for DNA damage, upon the combination treatment of etoposide and Saikosaponin B2. Among Saikosaponin family compounds, we found that Saikosaponin B1, but not Saikosaponin A, sensitized etoposide-induced cytotoxicity implicating thestructural requirement of Saikosaponin B for such chemosensitization. By testing the combination of Saikosaponin B1 and B2 with 9 clinical anticancer drugs, Saikosaponin B showed a certain preference in the combination with those… Read more

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    PMID:  Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017 ;2017:2695903. Epub 2017 Feb 15. PMID: 28293263 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin A Alleviates Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder through Downregulation of DAT and Enhancing BDNF Expression in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats. Abstract:  The disturbed dopamine availability and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression are due in part to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we investigated the therapeutical effect of saikosaponin a (SSa) isolated fromDC, against spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Methylphenidate and SSa were orally administered for 3 weeks. Activity was assessed by open-field test and Morris water maze test. Dopamine (DA) and BDNF were determined in specific brain regions. The mRNA or protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicles monoamine transporter (VMAT) was also studied. Both MPH and SSa reduced hyperactivity and improved the spatial learning memory deficit in SHRs. An increased DA concentration in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum was also observed after treating with the SSa. The increased DA concentration may partially be attributed to the decreased mRNA and protein expression of DAT in PFC while SSa exhibited no significant effects on the mRNA expression of TH and VMAT… Read more

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    PMID:  Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017 04 15 ;27(8):1654-1659. Epub 2017 Mar 7. PMID: 28314599 Abstract Title:  Anti-influenza triterpenoid saponins (saikosaponins) from the roots of Bupleurum marginatum var. stenophyllum. Abstract:  This study to investigate antiviral components from the roots of Bupleurum marginatum var. stenophyllum led to the isolation of five novel saikosaponins, namely 6″-O-crotonyl-saikosaponin a (1), tibesaikosaponin I (2), tibesaikosaponin II (3), tibesaikosaponin III (4), tibesaikosaponin IV (5), along with 9 known analogues (6-14). Their structures were established by spectral data analyses (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR) and by comparison of spectral data with those of the related known compounds. Antiviral testing of all compounds against influenza A virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1) in 293TGluc cells showed that nepasaikosaponin k (12), saikosaponin n (13) and saikosaponin h (14) behaved more potent inhibitory activity and selectivity than the positive control, Ribavirin. The preliminary structure-activity relationship studies suggest that the 13, 28-epoxy group, the type of sugar chain and the type of olefinic bonds are significant for antiviral activity and selectivity. read more Read more

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    PMID:  Neoplasma. 2017;64(4):518-525. PMID: 28485157 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin-d suppresses cell growth in renal cell carcinoma through EGFR/p38 signaling pathway. Abstract:  The study aimed to explore the effect of Saikosaponin-d (SSd) and its underlying mechanism on cell growth inhibition as well as induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MTT assay and colony formation assay were employed in this study, with the results indicating that RCC cells proliferation was inhibited by SSd at different doses. Analysis by flow cytometry revealed that RCC cell proliferation inhibitory effect of SSd was achieved by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase via up-regulation of p53. As compared to the control group, SSd can significantly inhibit the growth of 769-P and 786-O cell lines and induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The mechanism exploration demonstrated that inhibiting the activation of EGFR/p38 signaling pathways was the molecular basis of SSd's biological effects such as inducing apoptotic death, inhibiting cell growth as well as up-regulating p53 expression in human RCC cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that SSd may serve as a promising intervention for chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic treatment for patients with RCC. read more Read more

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    PMID:  Mol Med Rep. 2017 Aug ;16(2):1459-1464. Epub 2017 Jun 13. PMID: 28627659 Abstract Title:  Effects of Saikosaponin D on apoptosis in human U87 glioblastoma cells. Abstract:  Saikosaponin D (SSd) is a type of Saponin derivative, which is a component extracted from Bupleurum falactum. SSd has been reported to exert anticancer activities. However, the effects of SSd on gliomas have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacological functions and potential molecular mechanisms of SSd in human U87 glioblastoma cells. The cells were treated with SSd at various concentrations for 48 h, the cell viability was assessed with 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium assay, and the activation of Akt, extracellular signal‑regulated kinases (ERK), c‑Jun N‑terminal kinases (JNK) and caspase‑3 was assessedby western blotting. In addition, apoptosis levels were analyzed with Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V staining. The results demonstrated that treatment of the U87 glioma cells with SSd markedly suppressed cell proliferation in a dose‑dependent manner. Meanwhile, SSd treatment enhanced apoptosis in the U87 cells. Furthermore, SSd significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, and promoted phosphorylated‑JNK and cleaved caspase‑3 expression. The present study revealed the potential therapeutic effects of SSd in the treatment of gliomas, and the cytotoxic… Read more

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    PMID:  Inflammation. 2018 Feb ;41(1):193-198. PMID: 28986747 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin a Ameliorates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice. Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Saikosaponin a (SSa), a triterpene saponin derived from Radix bupleuri, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) using a murine model. The mice were given SSa 1 h after intranasal instillation of LPS. Then, lung histopathological examination, the wet/dry (W/D) ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected in this study. The results showed that SSa reduced lung pathological injury induced by LPS. Furthermore, LPS-induced lung W/D ratio, MPO activity, and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in BALF were significantly inhibited by SSa. In addition, SSa suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation and NLRP3 inflammasome expression. In conclusion, we found that SSa played a critical anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of NF-κB and NLRP3 signaling pathways and protected against LPS-induced ALI. read more Read more

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    PMID:  Mol Med Rep. 2018 Jun ;17(6):7939-7946. Epub 2018 Apr 5. PMID: 29620210 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin‑d alleviates carbon‑tetrachloride induced acute hepatocellular injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the HL‑7702 cell line. Abstract:  Saikosaponin‑d (SSd) the primary active component of triterpene saponin derived from Bupleurum falcatum L., possesses anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to examine the potential therapeutic effects of SSd on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‑induced acute hepatocellular injuryin the HL‑7702 cell line and its underlying mechanisms. HL‑7702 cells were treated with SSd at different doses (0.5, 1 or 2 µmol/l). Cell viability was determined using an MTT assay. Injury was assessed by the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Oxidative stress was assessed using malondialdehyde (MDA) content and total‑superoxide dismutase (T‑SOD) activity. The expression of nucleotide‑binding domain, leucine‑rich‑containing family, pyrin domain‑containing‑3 (NLRP3), apoptosis‑associated speck‑like protein (ASC), caspase‑1 and high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) was assessed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blot analysis. Interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑18 were determined by RT‑qPCR and ELISA. SSd attenuated the inhibition of cell viability and the high AST and ALT levels induced by CCl4 in HL‑7702 cells. Oxidative stress was induced… Read more

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    PMID:  Inflammation. 2018 Aug ;41(4):1297-1303. PMID: 29654431 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin a Inhibits Cigarette Smoke-Induced Oxidant Stress and Inflammatory Responses by Activation of Nrf2. Abstract:  Saikosaponin a (SSa), a triterpenoid saponin, has numerous pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how SSa protected against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation in mice. The mice were exposed to CS and SSa was administered by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection 1 h before CS treatment for 5 consecutive days. The results showed that SSa significantly inhibited CS-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, NO, TNF-α, and IL-1β production in BALF. SSa also inhibited CS-induced MPO and MDA contents in lung tissues. Furthermore, SSa significantly inhibited CS-induced NF-κB and upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. In conclusion, these results support a therapeutic potential for SSa in CS-induced lung inflammation. read more Read more

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    PMID:  Inflammation. 2018 Aug ;41(4):1508-1514. PMID: 29748729 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin A Inhibits LPS-Induced Endometritis in Mice Through Activating Nrf2 Signaling Pathway. Abstract:  Saikosaponin A (SSA) is the major triterpenoid glycoside isolated from Bupleurum falcatum. In this study, we reported the protective effects and mechanism of SSA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endometritis in mice. The pathological changes and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of uterus tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and MPO detection kit. Inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 production were detected by ELISA. The expression of protein was measured by western blot analysis. The results showed that SSA administration inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration as confirmed by the decreased MPO activity. LPS-induced uterus histological changes were also suppressed by SSA. Meanwhile, LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 production were reduced by SSA administration. The phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and inhibitor of kappa B (IκBα) induced by LPS were inhibited by SSA. In addition, the expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) were upregulated by SSA in a concentration-dependent manner. These results provide evidence that SSA protects against LPS-induced endometritis through inhibiting inflammatory response. SSA may be used as a potential therapeutic… Read more

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    PMID:  Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2017 07 15 ;31(7):825-829. PMID: 29798527 Abstract Title:  [Neuroprotective effects and mechanism of saikosaponin A on acute spinal cord injury in rats]. Abstract:  Objective: To investigate the effect of saikosaponin a (SSa) on the levels of immune inflammation in rats with acute spinal cord injury and its possible mechanism.Methods: Seventy-two Sprague Dawley rats (weighing, 220-250 g) were randomly divided into sham operation group (group A), spinal cord injury group (group B), and SSa treatment group (group C) respectively, 24 rats in each group. The spinal cord injury model was induced by using the Allen's method in groups B and C; the spinous process and vertebral plate at both sides were cut off by lamina excision to expose the spinal cord in group A. The rats were given intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg SSa in group C and equal volume of normal saline in group B at immediate after injury. The spinal cord tissue was harvested from 18 rats of each group at 24 hours after operation to measure the levels of tumor necrosis factorα (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) by ELISA, to detect the expressions of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)… Read more

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    PMID:  Neural Regen Res. 2018 Sep ;13(9):1650-1656. PMID: 30127128 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin a increases interleukin-10 expression and inhibits scar formation after sciatic nerve injury. Abstract:  Nerve scarring after peripheral nerve injury can severely hamper nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Further, the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10, can inhibit nerve scar formation. Saikosaponin a (SSa) is a monomer molecule extracted from the Chinese medicine, Bupleurum. SSa can exert anti-inflammatory effects in spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury. However, it has not been shown whether SSa can play a role in peripheral nerve injury. In this study, rats were randomly assigned to three groups. In the sham group, the left sciatic nerve was directly sutured after exposure. In the sciatic nerve injury (SNI) + SSa and SNI groups, the left sciatic nerve was sutured and continuously injected daily with SSa (10 mg/kg) or an equivalent volume of saline for 7 days. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay results demonstrated that at 7 days after injury, interleukin-10 level was considerably higher in the SNI + SSa group than in the SNI group. Masson staining and western blot assay demonstrated that at 8 weeks after injury, type I and III collagen content was lower and nerve scar… Read more

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    PMID:  Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Dec ;108:724-733. Epub 2018 Sep 21. PMID: 30248540 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin D from Radix Bupleuri suppresses triple-negative breast cancer cell growth by targetingβ-catenin signaling. Abstract:  BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most aggressive and poor prognosis breast cancers. Currently, chemotherapy with conventional cytotoxic agents is the only available option to treat TNBC. Hence, we identified new therapeutic agents against TNBC from traditional Chinese medicine Radix Bupleuri and unveiled the molecule mechanism of anti-TNBC effects.METHODS: Multi-component bioactivity and structure-guided methods were used to identify the most effective anti-TNBC compound Saikosaponin D (SSD) from Radix Bupleuri. Cell viability and apoptosis assays were employed to demonstrate the effect of SSD on the proliferation and apoptosis of TNBC cells. Dynamic mass redistribution assay, TopFlash assay, western blotting, and special agonist were applied to dissect the potential molecular mechanisms of SSD.RESULTS: We screened twenty fractions in Radix Bupleuri and identified SSD as the most effective component to inhibit the proliferation of TNBC cells. Investigating the interaction of SSD with the frequently overexpressed targets in TNBC led to the identification that it markedly suppressed Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but did not act on epidermal growth factor receptor and neurotensin receptor-1. Moreover,… Read more

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    PMID:  Inflammation. 2019 Feb ;42(1):342-353. PMID: 30251218 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin B2 Suppresses Inflammatory Responses Through IKK/IκBα/NF-κB Signaling Inactivation in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages. Abstract:  Bupleurum falcatum (Umbelliferae) have been widely used to treat inflammatory diseases as traditional medicines in East Asian region. Although saikosaponins are main bioactive molecules of B. falcatum, there is little information on bioactivity of saikosaponin B(SSB2). This study was conducted to assess the anti-inflammatory activities and the involved mechanisms of SSB2 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. SSB2 suppressed the releases of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(PGE), tumor necrosis factorα (TNF-α), interleukins (IL)-6, and IL-1β by suppressing mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced macrophages. SSB2 blocked LPS-induced DNA binding and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity by inhibiting nuclear translocation p65 and p50, inhibitory κBα (IκBα) degradation, and IκB kinase β (IKKβ) phosphorylation and activity. In IKKβ-overexpressing cells, SSB2 significantly suppressed IKKβ-dependent NF-κB transcriptional activity. Moreover, SSB2 reduced phosphorylation of p38 and extracellularsignal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2). SSB2 effectively inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediator releases by interfering with IKKβ and IκBα activation, thus preventing NF-κB activation. Our data indicates that SSB2 could be a potential therapeutic application for inflammation-associated diseases.… Read more

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    PMID:  Chem Biol Interact. 2019 Feb 25 ;300:18-26. Epub 2019 Jan 3. PMID: 30611790 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin d ameliorates pancreatic fibrosis by inhibiting autophagy of pancreatic stellate cells via PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Abstract:  Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by pancreatic fibrosis, associated with excessive activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and increased expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Recently, our studies have shown that autophagy inhibitor could inhibit PSCs activation and reduce collagen secretion. Saikosaponin d (SSd), the major active component of bupleurum falcatum (a medicinal plant), has anti-fibrosis effects in liver. However, it is unclear whether SSd hasa role in pancreatic fibrosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of SSd on the autophagy and activation of PSCs in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, a rat chronic pancreatitis model was induced by intravenous injection of dibutyltin dichloride. SSd was administered at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg bodyweight per day by gavage. After 4 weeks, the pancreas was collected for histological and molecular analysis. In vitro, PSCs were isolated and cultured for treatment with different dosages of SSd. The results showed that SSd inhibited PSCs autophagy and activation while also reducing extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and pancreatic damage. SSd inhibited autophagy through… Read more

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    PMID:  Exp Ther Med. 2019 Jan ;17(1):488-494. Epub 2018 Nov 14. PMID: 30651826 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin D inhibits proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells via the p53 signaling pathway. Abstract:  Saikosaponin D (SSd), the major monomeric terpenoid extracted from, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, exerts various pharmacological properties, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antiviral. The present study aimed to investigate the role of SSd in human osteosarcoma (OS) cell growth. In the investigation MTS and EdU assays were applied and flow cytometric analyses of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed. Western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to explore the underlying mechanisms of SSd on cell cycle transition and p53 signaling. Here, it was demonstrated that SSd administration at 80µmol/l significantly inhibited 143B and MG-63 proliferation. Furthermore, SSd significantly increased the percentage of 143B and MG-63 cells in G-Gphase and the number of apoptosis cells compared with the control group. Data further demonstrated that SSd treatment upregulated mRNA and protein levels of tumor protein 53 (p53) and its downstream targets, including p21, p27, B-cell lymphoma-2-like protein 4 and cleaved caspase-3, and downregulated mRNA and protein levels of cyclinD1. The results suggested that SSd was a functional tumor suppressor… Read more

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    PMID:  Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2019;4:4. Epub 2019 Feb 22. PMID: 30820356 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin D suppresses enterovirus A71 infection by inhibiting autophagy. Abstract:  The dysregulation of autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation process, has been implicated in a wide variety of human diseases, and thus, small chemicals that modulate autophagy have therapeutic potential. Here, we assessed the ability of active components isolated from, a popular Chinese herb, to modulate autophagy. We found that saikosaponin D (SsD) and A (SsA) but not C (SsC) potently and reversibly inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the accumulation of autophagosomes, an increased lysosomal pH, and TFEB nuclear translocation. RAB5A knockdown or the expression of a dominant-negative RAB5 mutant significantly reduced the ability of SsD or SsA to block autophagy. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), the cause of hand-foot-mouth disease, has been shown to induce autophagy. We found that SsD potently inhibited EV-A71 RNA replication and subsequent viral protein synthesis, thereby preventing EV-A71-induced cell death. ATG5 knockdown inhibited EV-A71 viral protein synthesis, whereas autophagy induction by rapamycin promoted synthesis. Taken together, our data indicate that SsD and SsA are potent late-stage autophagy inhibitors that can be used to prevent EV-A71 infection. read more Read more

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    PMID:  J Chin Med Assoc. 2019 May ;82(5):368-374. PMID: 30920421 Abstract Title:  Antiviral effect of saikosaponin B2 in combination with daclatasvir on NS5A resistance-associated substitutions of hepatitis C virus. Abstract:  BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The rapid progress in the development of direct-acting antivirals has greatly elevated the cure rate to≥95% in recent years. However, the high cost of treatment is not affordable to patients in some countries, necessitating the development of less expensive treatment.METHODS: We adopted a cell culture-derived HCV system to screen a library of the pure compounds extracted from herbs deposited in the chemical bank of the National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taiwan.RESULTS: We found that saikosaponin B2 inhibited viral entry, replication, and translation. Saikosaponin B2 is a plant glycoside and a component of xiao-chai-hu-tang, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine extracted from the roots of Bupleurum falcatum. It also inhibited daclatasvir-resistant mutant strains of HCV, especially in combination with daclatasvir.CONCLUSION: Our results may aid the development of a new combination therapy useful for patients with HCV who are intolerant or refractory to the currently available medications, including pegylated interferon and direct-acting antiviral agents. read… Read more

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    PMID:  Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Jul ;72:131-137. Epub 2019 Apr 10. PMID: 30981078 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin a ameliorates lipopolysaccharide and d‑galactosamine-induced liver injury via activating LXRα. Abstract:  Saikosaponin a (SSa), one of the major active components of Bupleurum falcatum, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pharmacological properties. However, the effects of SSa on liver injury have not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects and mechanisms of SSa on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d‑galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced liver injury. The mice were pretreated with SSa 1 h before LPS/D-GalN treatment. The liver MPO, MDA, and the serum AST and ALT levels were tested by specific determination kits. The pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β were tested by ELISA kits. The expression of NF-κB signaling pathway and LXRα were tested by western blot analysis. The results showed that SSa significantly reduced the levels of liver MPO, MDA, and serum AST, ALT levels induced by LPS/D-GalN. SSa also dose-dependently inhibited LPS/D-GalN-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β production. Furthermore, we found that SSa inhibited NF-κB signaling pathway activation induced by LPS/D-GalN. In addition, SSa dose-dependently increased the expression of LXRα. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that SSa had protective effect on liver injury and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of SSa… Read more

    - greenmedinfo

    PMID:  Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2019 Mar ;35(3):256-261. PMID: 31030720 Abstract Title:  [Saikosaponin D inhibits proliferation and collagen production of human embryonic lung fibroblasts by regulating TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway]. Abstract:  Objective To investigate the effect of saikosaponin D (SSD) on the proliferation and transformation of human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs) induced by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and the regulation of signal pathway of TGF-β1/Smads family. Methods HELFs were cultured in vitro and divided into 5 groups: a control group, 1 ng/mL TGF-β1-induced group, 1 ng/mL TGF-β1 combined with 0.5 μmol/L SSD treatment group, 1 ng/mL TGF-β1 combined with 1 μmol/L SSD treatment group, and 1 ng/mL TGF-β1 combined with 2 μmol/L SSD treatment group. Cell viability of HELFs was detected by CCK-8 assay. The expression of Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7 mRNA were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The protein levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), type 1 collagen (Col1), Smad2, Smad3, phosphorylated Smad2 (p-smad2), p-smad3 and Smad7 were assessed by Western blot analysis. Results Compared with the control group, TGF-β1-induced group showed the apparently increased proliferation ability, the increased protein levels of Col1 and α-SMA, the significantly increased mRNA and protein phosphorylation… Read more

    - greenmedinfo

    PMID:  Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Jul ;72:454-458. PMID: 31035087 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin A protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. Abstract:  Ulcerative colitis, one of the most important inflammatory bowel diseases, affects millions of people worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Saikosaponin A on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. The mice were treated with 2.5% DSS for 5 d to induce acute colitis. Saikosaponin A was given 3 d before and during DSS treatment by intragastric administration. The results showed that Saikosaponin A significantly inhibited DSS-induced body weight loss and shortening of colon length. DSS-induced colonic histological changes and MPO activity were also prevented by treatment of Saikosaponin A. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß were increased by DSS and dose-dependently inhibited by Saikosaponin A. Furthermore, Saikosaponin A significantly inhibited DSS-induced NF-κB activation and up-regulated the expression of LXRα. Taken together, our results indicated that Saikosaponin A had protective effects against DSS-induced colitis. Saikosaponin A protected DSS-induced colitis through inhibiting inflammatory response. read more Read more

    - greenmedinfo

    PMID:  Front Pharmacol. 2019 ;10:623. Epub 2019 May 29. PMID: 31191326 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin-d Suppresses COX2 Through p-STAT3/C/EBPβ Signaling Pathway in Liver Cancer: A Novel Mechanism of Action. Abstract:  Saikosaponin-d (SSd) is an active extract from, the dried root from the plantused in China for thousands of years to treat liver diseases. The SSd extract possesses valuable pharmacological activities including anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects; however, the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer activity of SSd is largely unknown. Here, we explored the mechanism of action of SSd as an anti-cancer agent for liver cancer in two human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Using MTT and annexin-V-FITC/PI assays, Western blots, immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, luciferase reporter assay, and a JAK2-specific inhibitor (AG490), we demonstrated that the anti-tumorigenic effects of SSd act through the intermediatory p-STAT3/C/EBPβ signaling pathway to suppress cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. SSd effectively inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis was significantly increased in cells treated with SSd (2.5-15 µg/ml) with concurrent increase and decrease in pro- and anti-apoptosis proteins, respectively.COX-2, C/EBPβ, and p-STAT3 were significantly decreased, at both the translational and transcriptional levels, by SSd treatment. AG490 produced similar inhibitory effects on STAT3, p-STAT3, C/EBPβ, and COX-2. In conclusion, our data suggest that SSd controls… Read more

    - greenmedinfo

    n/a PMID:  Life Sci. 2019 Aug 15 ;231:116557. Epub 2019 Jun 10. PMID: 31194994 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin b2 enhances the hepatotargeting effect of anticancer drugs through inhibition of multidrug resistance-associated drug transporters. Abstract:  AIMS: Vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB) potentiates the activity of anticancer drugs in the liver by increasing their hepatic distribution. However, this phenomenon may be associated with drug transporters. We investigated the effect of saikosaponin b2 (SSb2; the main component of VBRB) on the activity and expression of different drug transporters in both normal cells and those that overexpress the transporter. MAIN METHODS: The activities of transporters were analyzed by concentration of their cellular substrates. Concentrations of colchicine (substrate of Pgp and MRP1) and cisplatin (substrate of OCT2 and MRP2) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration of rhodamine B was determined by flow cytometry. The expression of transporter gene and protein were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. KEY FINDINGS: SSb2 increased colchicine efflux in HEK293 cells by primarily increasing Mrp1 activity, independent of gene and protein expression. SSb2 enhanced Mrp2 function and increased cisplatin efflux in BRL3A cells by upregulating Mrp2 gene expression, with a marginal effect on Pgp in normal cells. SSb2… Read more

    - greenmedinfo

    PMID:  Front Pharmacol. 2019 ;10:624. Epub 2019 Jun 4. PMID: 31214035 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin A Inhibits Breast Cancer by Regulating Th1/Th2 Balance. Abstract:  Saikosaponin A (SSa) is isolated from the dried root of, an herb widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, exerting antitumor activities. The T helper cell type 1(Th1)/Th2 balance is associated with antitumor immunity in breast cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of SSa on Th1/Th2 balance in breast cancer and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Breast cancer in rats was induced by intragastrical administration of 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a] anthracene once (100 mg/kg). At d, the rats suffering from tumors were randomly divided into three groups and treated with vehicle solution (control group), tamoxifen (TAM group), and SSa (SSa group) daily for 56 days, respectively. The tumor volume reduction ratio and tumor cell proliferation were detected to assess the antitumor effect of SSa. The positive staining numbers of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells infiltrated in breast tumors were measured by immunohistochemistry to evaluate the antitumor immunity of SSa. Cytokine levels in serum secreted by Th1 cells [interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-12] and Th2 cells (IL-4, IL-10) were detected to evaluate Th1/Th2 balance. The related molecules of IL-12/signal… Read more

    - greenmedinfo

    PMID:  Mol Med Rep. 2019 Aug ;20(2):1943-1951. Epub 2019 Jun 13. PMID: 31257464 Abstract Title:  Antitumor effects of saikosaponin b2 on breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. Abstract:  Saikosaponin b2 (SSb2) can be extracted from Bupleurum spp. roots (Radix Bupleuri), which belongs to the Umbelliferae family. The current study aimed to explore the effects of SSb2 on proliferation of breast cancer cells and to identify the mechanism by which SSb2 affects breast cancer cell migration. mRNA expression levels of STAT3 and vasodilator‑stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) were determined and increased expression was observed in 16 breast cancer tissues compared with the paracancerous tissues. MTT, wound healing, colony formation assays and western blot suggested that SSb2 inhibited MCF‑7 proliferation and migration. It was further identified by western blot analysis that SSb2 treatment reduced levels of phosphorylated STAT3, VASP, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 2 and MMP9 in MCF‑7 compared with the untreated cells. In addition, it was demonstrated that inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation decreased VASP expression levels and induction of STAT3 phosphorylation increased VASP levels. Furthermore, it was observed that the treatment of Kunming mice with SSb2 at 30 mg/kg/day for 30 days induced no obvious changes in the liver or kidney tissues, as determined by haematoxylin… Read more

    - greenmedinfo

    PMID:  Inflamm Res. 2019 Dec ;68(12):1025-1034. Epub 2019 Sep 17. PMID: 31531682 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin C exerts anti-HBV effects by attenuating HNF1α and HNF4α expression to suppress HBV pgRNA synthesis. Abstract:  OBJECTIVE: Saikosaponin c (SSc), a compound purified from the traditional Chinese herb of Radix Bupleuri was previously identified to exhibit anti-HBV replication activity. However, the mechanism through which SSc acts against HBV remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of SSc mediated anti-HBV activity.METHODS: HepG2.2.15 cells were cultured at 37 ℃ in the presence of 1-40 μg/mL of SSc or DMSO as a control. The expression profile of HBV markers, cytokines, HNF1α and HNF4α were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR, Elisa, Western blot and Dot blotting. Knockdown of HNF1α or HNF4α in HepG2.2.15 cells was mediated by two small siRNAs specifically targeting HNF1α or HNF4α.RESULTS: We found that SSc stimulates IL-6 expression, leading to attenuated HNF1α and HNF4α expression, which further mediates suppression of HBV pgRNA synthesis. Knockdown of HNF1α or HNF4α in HepG2.2.15 cells by RNA interference abrogates SSc's anti-HBV role. Moreover, SSc is effective to both wild-type and drug-resistant HBV mutants.CONCLUSION: SSc inhibits pgRNA synthesis by targeting HNF1α and HNF4α. These results indicate that SSc acts as… Read more

    - greenmedinfo

    PMID:  J Cancer. 2019 ;10(20):4947-4953. Epub 2019 Aug 27. PMID: 31598167 Abstract Title:  Saikosaponin-d Increases the Radiosensitivity of Hepatoma Cells by Adjusting Cell Autophagy. Abstract:  Radiotherapy for liver cancer can affect the level of autophagy in cells, and effective autophagy regulation can increase the radiosensitivity of liver cancer cells.Saikosaponin-d (SSd) is an effective active ingredient extracted from traditional Chinese medicine Bupleurum. We have confirmed previously in vitro and in vitro experiments that SSd can significantly induce apoptosis of liver cancer cells, increase the radiosensitivity of liver cancer cells.This study explored the role of autophagy in SSd-mediated radiosensitivity of liver cancer cells. MTT and clone formation experiments showed that radiation can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cells and reduce the colony formation of hepatoma cells. After the addition of SSd, the inhibitory effect of radiation on the proliferation and clonal formation of hepatoma cells was further enhanced. However, the addition of the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine or mTOR agonist can partially reverse the inhibitory effect of the combined treatment of SSd with radiation on the proliferation of hepatoma cells. Similarly, transmission electron microscopy and laser confocal microscopy showed that after the addition of SSd, the number of radiation-induced autophagosomes increased significantly in… Read more

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